Birds, Poop, and Naval Warfare: The Story of the Midway Atoll

At only two and a half square miles in area, the Midway Atoll is an excellent example of the famous phrase “size matters not.” Midway’s history also helped to fulfill the ancient prophecy of “bird poop will one day help the U.S. defeat Japan in World War II.” Its strategic position has proven useful time and again for mariners and aviators of all shapes and sizes. Throughout its history, the island has proven an important base of military operations as well as a critical nesting site for millions of Pacific seabirds. Today, the future of Midway and its inhabitants are threatened by pollution and climate change.

01 Helicopters on the flight deck of the aircraft carrier USS Midway CV-41, which has been a museum called the USS Midway Museum since 2004 in San Diego California USA Photo Credit Zack Neher

Helicopters on the flight deck of the decommissioned aircraft carrier the USS Midway, CV-41.  The Midway was commissioned shortly after the end of World War II, and was named in honor of the important naval battle that took place at the atoll.  Today, the Midway is a museum in San Diego, where visitors can explore the enormous ship and see what life might have been like on the floating city.

Despite the distance, Midway Atoll is geologically a part of the Hawaiian Island chain, often referred to as the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain. Millions of years ago, Midway Atoll was directly above the geologic hotspot that is currently situated under the Big Island of Hawaii. Continental drift took the entire Pacific Plate to the northwest, and as the millennia wore on, erosion brought Midway closer and closer to sea level. As the volcanic island itself subsided further and further, coral reefs grew larger and larger, in a fight to remain close enough to the surface to undergo photosynthesis. Viewed from space, Midway Atoll consists of two islands, surrounded by a ring of coral reef.

02 A drawn map of the Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean with Sand Island Spit Island and Eastern Island Drawn and Photo Credit by Zack Neher

A map of Midway Atoll.  The three small islands are at the bottom of the map, and the entire atoll is defined by the shallow reefs.

There is no archaeological evidence that Polynesian navigators found their way to Midway, although some of their stories do seem to allude to the atoll. Midway first came to the attention of Western society in 1859, when Captain N.C. Brooks claimed the atoll for the United States under the 1856 Guano Islands Act. This act allowed the U.S. to provisionally occupy uninhabited and unclaimed islands for the acquisition of guano (seabird poop), which, at the time, was worth twenty-five percent that of gold. The nitrogen-rich guano was a very valuable fertilizer, and Midway Atoll was full of it.

03 A large number of cormorants perched on an island covered in guano just off shore at Simon's Town or Simonstad near Cape Town in South Africa with Teddy Castro and Michael Collett Photo Credit Zack Neher

A large number of cormorants perched on an island covered in guano, just off shore at Simon’s Town in South Africa.  Interestingly, this town plays host to the South African Navy, although I was there for the penguins.

If you manipulate a globe so that you are looking straight down at the Hawaiian Island, you can see that the Pacific Ocean takes up nearly half of the Earth’s surface. Anything trying to cross this vast expanse of ocean, be they man or beast, will face enormous challenges. Fortunately, the ocean is peppered with small islands, including the Hawaiian chain and Midway Atoll, which provide critical refuge to both wildlife and human travelers.

04 A drawn map of the Pacific Ocean and Oceania with Hawaii Wake Island Midway Atoll Guam Philippines Formosa Japan Alaska Australia New Zealand New Guinea China Russia Borneo Aleutian Islands Vietnam Mongolia Drawn and Photo Credit by Zack Neher

A map of the Pacific Ocean, with several of the islands mentioned in this post labeled.

Even before the outbreak of the Second World War, Midway would serve as a vital stepping stone across the mighty Pacific. Midway was reportedly the final link of a worldwide telegraph system, whose first message was sent by President Teddy Roosevelt on July 4th, 1903. Midway (as well as Wake and Guam) was also used as a stopping point for the Pan American clippers, a luxurious passenger flying boat that would eventually make flights from California to Hong Kong in three days* (a maritime journey of approximately three weeks).

The Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7th, 1941 was the final straw that galvanized the United States to finally enter World War II. Although the attack itself came as a shock, American leaders had been preparing for the possibility of a war with Japan since 1911. “Plan Orange” was the designation given to the contingency war plan created, just in case America found herself at war with Japan. With the annexation of Hawaii in 1898, and the procurement of both Wake Island and Guam, the U.S. now had a path across the Pacific Ocean, to be able to reach the Philippines (which were under American control at the time), as well as the rest of Asia. The longest transit for the U.S. Pacific Fleet would be from California to Hawaii, a distance greater than 2,000 nautical miles. Following that leg of the voyage, the ships could hop from Hawaii to Midway, to Wake, to Guam, and arrive at last at the Philippines. Each of these legs was somewhere between 1,000 and 1,500 nautical miles.

05 A highway road sign for Kailua, Kaneohe Marine Corps Base Hawaii MCBH, Honolulu, and Pearl Harbor in front of a Toyota dealership on O'ahu in Hawaii Photo Credit Zack Neher

Unfortunately, I didn’t get the chance to visit the Pearl Harbor Memorial while visiting Hawaii.

Although Pearl Harbor was a major American disaster, the American carriers had actually been delivering planes to Midway and Wake when the Japanese struck, saving them from a fiery fate. A blessing for the Americans, and a curse for the Japanese, who wanted the United States out of the fight for the Pacific. The Japanese Admiral Yamamoto Isoroku hoped to lure the American fleet into battle by attacking the Aleutian Peninsula of Alaska, and wee little Midway Atoll in the middle of the Pacific. Fortunately, American cryptanalysts were able to deliver forewarning of the Japanese attack,** and American Admiral Chester Nimitz was able to position his fleet three hundred miles to the north of Midway, before the Japanese could set up their submarines around the atoll.

06 Aloha Tower in Honolulu Hawaii as viewed from the MV World Odyssey Photo Credit Zack Neher

Aloha Tower in Honolulu, which was painted in camouflage during World War II, to make it more difficult to see in the dark.

The Americans were outnumbered, and outgunned. The Japanese had eight aircraft carriers, nearly three times as many as the Americans, who could only muster three. One of these three, the Yorktown, had been hit a month earlier during the Battle of the Coral Sea, and was in need of repairs, which most thought would take at least a few weeks. In a Muskian feat of incredibly optimistic deadlines and unexpected success,*** repair crews at Pearl Harbor had the Yorktown out of drydock in only three days!

01 A McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II from the VF-21 Freelancers on the deck of the aircraft carrier USS Midway, at the USS Midway Museum in San Diego, California, USA Photo Credit Zack Neher

A McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II from the VF-21 Freelancers on the deck of the USS Midway in San Diego.  Although not active during World War II, some of these aircraft were stationed on the USS Midway while the ship was active, as you can see written on the aircraft’s fuselage.

While the Japanese began their airstrikes on the atoll, the American commanders had launched more than 100 planes, which flew directly to the last known location of the Japanese fleet. Upon arrival, the Japanese weren’t there, and only after a bit of searching did they locate them. Two waves of American torpedo-bombers attacked, most of which were shot down, and the Japanese ships went entirely unscathed.

06 The Grumman F4F Wildcat, an American carrier-based fighter aircraft, on display at the USS Midway Museum in San Diego, California, USA Photo Credit Zack Neher

The Grumman F4F Wildcat, a carrier-based American fighter plane, on display at the USS Midway Museum in San Diego.  Pilots flying Wildcats were present during the Battle of Midway.

The torpedo-bombers were lower altitude aircraft, designed to launch torpedoes close to the surface of the water. To combat them, the Japanese fighters were also at low altitude, leaving their ships vulnerable to attack from above. Conveniently, this was when the American dive-bombers came across the Japanese ships, a group of four aircraft carriers. The dive-bomber attack was able to sink three of the carriers, and the fourth was sunk later that afternoon. The Battle of Midway was won, and marked a significant turning point in the Pacific Theatre.

07 A Douglas SBD Dauntless Dive Bomber on display at the National World War II Museum in the US Freedom Pavilion (The Boeing Center) in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA with Seamus Kieran, Mikaila Bloomfield and Emily Barber Photo Credit Zack Neher

A Douglas SBD Dauntless Dive Bomber on display at the National World War II Museum in New Orleans, Louisiana.

Humans are not the only organism that takes advantage of the Midway Atoll as a resting place in the Pacific.      Nineteen species of seabirds arrive every year to nest on the island, nearly two million of them! The atoll is home to one and a half million nesting albatross, making it the largest albatross colony in the entire world.   The nesting albatross population makes up the largest nesting population of the Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) and the second largest nesting population of the black-footed albatross (Phoebastria albatrus).**** Several species of tern, booby, noddy, and tropicbird have also been known to nest on Midway. As of 2004, recovery efforts for the Critically Endangered Laysan duck (Anas laysanensis) began, with the introduction of around forty individuals onto Midway. By 2008, their population had increased to approximately three hundred individuals.

08 A wild Laysan Albatross Phoebastria immutabilis soars above the waves of the Pacific Ocean between Hawaii and Japan in the Pacific Ocean as seen from the deck of the MV World Odyssey on Semester at Sea Photo Credit Zack Neher

A wild Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) soars above the waves of the Pacific Ocean between Hawaii and Japan.  The largest nesting population of this magnificent bird is at Midway.

Islands, especially small ones, can be plagued by intense selective pressures that can pose devastating consequences on their native populations. Human development, pollution, and hunting are significant problems for many species, as well as the introduced and invasive species and associated diseases that can come with them. Low-lying islands like Midway will also suffer more intensely in the future with heightened storm surges and a higher mean global sea level. In some cases, island life is a literal example of putting all of your eggs in one basket.

16 Introduced mangrove trees on Moku-o-loe Island Coconut Island Marine Laboratory Refuge marine research station in Hawaii Photo Credit Zack Neher

At some point, mangroves were introduced to the Hawaiian Islands by humans.  Interestingly, I was with my Conservation Biology class here on Coconut Island, learning about the efforts to prevent an invasive algae from smothering the native coral.

For the Laysan albatross in particular, another major threat to its health and well-being is plastic debris. Washed into the ocean as trash and litter, plastic debris will become concentrated by the gyres in the North Pacific, resulting in what many have referred to as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. Every year, a ridiculous amount of trash washes up on the shores of the island, and it has started to have an affect on the local avifauna. Laysan albatross chicks have been found dead, their stomachs completely filled, and blocked up by, plastic trash. The adults seem to confuse plastic debris for prey, or somehow wind up ingesting it while hunting for food, and wind up regurgitating it for their chicks once they return from the hunt to the nest.

17 Unidentified trash debris floating in the Pacific Ocean a few days out from Hawaii between Hawaii and Japan

Unidentified marine debris (trash) floating out in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.  I was pretty surprised by the amount of trash that you would see just randomly floating in the middle of the ocean, although most of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch is composed of small fragments of non-biodegradable plastics.

Despite these abundant threats (or perhaps because of them), albatross are extremely hardy birds, capable of flying at least 10,000 miles in just one trip, although it will rest on the surface of the water like a duck to rest on its journey. The oldest known bird in the world is actually a Laysan albatross, an individual named “Wisdom,” a female that is at least 65 years old, and successfully hatched another chick back in February of 2016. Nevertheless, albatross are very vulnerable when it comes time to return to these isolated specks of land to breed and raise their chicks, and significant conservation efforts are required to ensure that they don’t decline with the continually increasing challenges that these magnificent birds face.

09 A wild black footed albatross Phoebastria nigripes soars above the waves between Mexico and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean as viewed from the deck of the MV World Odyssey on Semester at Sea Photo Credit Zack Neher 02

A wild black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) soars above the waves between Mexico and Hawaii, in the Pacific Ocean.

As a tie-in to this blog post, I interviewed my friend Doug Hartshorn, an employee at the Morrison Natural History Museum, about the time he spent on Wake Island with the Air Force in 1972, for the very first episode of my new The Natural World Podcast!  Check out the link below to listen in!

Episode 01: Adventures On Wake Island Featuring Doug Hartshorn

21 Doug Hartshorn the Museum Coordinator at the Morrison Natural History Museum in Morrison, Colorado Photo Credit Zack Neher

Doug Hartshorn at the Morrison Natural History Museum.

*As conventional methods of maritime navigation such as dead-reckoning and celestial navigation were not always reliable enough to rely on, Pan Am developed a means to transmit a signal from the aircraft, which was received by a station on the island, which was then transmitted back to the aircraft, in order to determine the position of said aircraft.

**There was evidence that the Japanese were planning something big about a month before the Battle of Midway. Although the cryptanalyst team was fairly confident that the target was, indeed, Midway, not everyone was fully convinced. So the team laid a trap for the Japanese. They falsified a radio broadcast, stating that there was a shortage of water on Midway due to the failure of a water distillation plant. Less than two days later, the team was able to decrypt a Japanese broadcast that stated that their mysterious target, which they often referred to as “AS,” had had a problem with their water distillation plant. As a side-note, apparently a number of the Americans hard at work decrypting the Japanese broadcasts were musicians from the American battleship California (damaged in the Pearl Harbor attack). The officer in charge of the team “thought their musical skills might make them adept codebreakers” (Ballard, 1999).

***Elon Musk, the famed CEO of Tesla and SpaceX, is notorious for setting incredibly optimistic deadlines for incredibly complex and difficult projects. By the way, I rode in a Tesla for the very first time today. What a morning.

****There seems to be some disagreement over the more ancient etymological ancestry of the name “albatross,” although the more recent Latin influence of the word “albus” (meaning “white”) is clear (also check out the white tern, featured in a picture above: the scientific name of this animal is Gygis alba). Albus Dumbledore, with his “unmistakable silver beard,” was named by J.K. Rowling to reflect this, and the importance that the color white apparently has in alchemy. Some sources indicate that the name “albatross,” while certainly influenced by the word “albus,” also likely has its roots in more ancient words, as well. One possibility that I read on etymonline.com suggests that it can be traced to the Spanish or Portuguese word for pelican, “alcatraz,” which is also the name given to the prison island in San Francisco, which has been home to a large number of roosting pelicans.

20 A brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis flying above the beaches of Hilton Head Island in South Carolina Photo Credit Zack Neher

A brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) flying above the beaches of Hilton Head Island in South Carolina.  Apparently, brown pelicans no longer nest on Alcatraz Island.

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Introducing “The Natural World: Connections”

On June 27th, 2012, I posted for the very first time on my original blog, The Natural World.  I was going into my senior year of high school, and was very eager to talk about dinosaurs and other animals on the World Wide Web.  It’s been almost four years now since I first started that blog, and I’ve changed a lot (at least I keep telling myself I have).  Last year, I decided to try and go through the several hundred blog posts I had posted and attempt to bring them up to date, both with any recent scientific advances, but also with a greater sense of academic rigor.  This task was daunting, to say the least, and difficult to do.  I was essentially rewriting posts that I no longer had a great deal of interest in, which kept me from trying to create new and interesting posts that were more relevant to my life today.  My friends suggested starting over, and the idea of a fresh start definitely appealed to me, so here we are.  I’m changing the name of my old blog to “The Natural World: Archives,” and this new blog is “The Natural World: Connections.”*  I’m really looking forward to being able to take advantage of the exciting features that WordPress has to offer, and I think I’ll be able to offer up a better system of picture viewing, as well.

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The new blog, replete with a brand new blog logo.  Over the next few weeks, I’ll probably start explaining where some of the images in the logo actually came from.

The main focus of the blog has not changed, I still aim to promote fun and educational natural history reading.  However, the scope of my topics has definitely broadened, and some posts may be a little more off topic than others.  From everything that I’ve ever learned about learning, I believe that making connections is one of the best ways to learn about something new.  If you can connect a topic to something that you understand better, it will take less time and energy to understand.  It’s with these ideas in mind that I’m going to haphazardly construct my posts.

I have just returned from the study abroad program “Semester at Sea,” where we got to visit a number of different countries around the world, and make some amazing friends in the process.  For this introduction post, I thought I would share a few of the pictures that I got over the last four months, more or less in order.

Real talks in the Pacific Ocean with Michael Collett Photo Credit Zack Neher

Crossing the majestic Pacific Ocean.  It was easy to sit out on deck and watch the waves for hours.  During the Pacific crossing, we were able to spot a number of different seabirds, including several species of albatross and booby, several whales, a number of dolphins, flying fish, and believe it or not, a random owl an entire day out from Japan (and yes, I do have the photos to prove it).

Sunset on the Pacific Ocean Photo Credit Zack Neher

Sunrise on the Pacific.

Glorious Mt. Fuji as viewed from a road along the bus route in Hakone with Michael Collett Lacey Gasaway and Michael Sharp Photo Credit Zack Neher

Our first foreign stop was Japan.  On day three, I went with a few of my friends to Hakone to try and see the stratovolcano Mount Fuji.  We got really lucky, and fortunately it was a pretty clear day.

Zack Neher on a boat in Ha Long Bay in Vietnam Photo Credit Sonia Szeton

In Vietnam, I got the opportunity to check out the fascinating karst landscape of Ha Long Bay.

Michael Collett and Zack Neher in Munnar in Kerala in India Photo Credit Teddy Castro

In India, our group and I stayed in the southern state of Kerala the entire time, and we spent most of our time in local national parks and nature reserves.  Here is me with my buddy Michael Collett near the beautiful town of Munnar.

Two ships of the Indian Navy, the research vessel A74 INS Sagardhwani and the Sukanya class offshore patrol vessel P53 INS Savitri, pass each other in the waters of Cochi or Cochin in Kerala India Photo Credit Zack Neher

Our ship, the MV World Odyssey, was docked in Cochin, which is also the location of the Southern Naval Command of the Indian Navy.  As such, we got the opportunity to spot a number of the Navy’s ships steaming through, sometimes even conducting exercises.  In this photograph, we have the INS Sagardhwani (A74) on the left, and the Sukanya class offshore patrol vessel INS Savitri (P53) on the right.

An Olive Ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea in the Indian Ocean Photo Credit Zack Neher

For the most part, the seas were very calm between India and Mauritius, and by spending a lot of time out on deck, I was able to see some pretty exciting animals!  I’m fairly confident that this is an olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea), based on the asymmetry of the costal scutes on the back of the animal.

The gang after snorkeling in Mauritius from left to right Teddy Castro Kim Kassander Mark Oldani Meghan with an H Adams and Zack Neher

Mauritius was a refueling and resupplying stop for us, and we only spent one day on land.  I was in a Field Lab (each class you take has one full-day field lab associated with it) for my Marine Biology class, and we got to go snorkeling!  This is me with a few of my friends, as we wait in line to get back on the ship.  From left to right, we have Teddy Castro, Kim Kassander, my roommate Mark Oldani, Meghan (with an “H”) Adams, and myself.

The Mountains of Mauritius seen behind the funnel of the MV World Odysseys Deutschland Semester at Sea Photo Credit Zack Neher

A few of the mountains of Mauritius from the top deck of our ship, the MV World Odyssey (or the MS Deutschland for you German fans of Das Traumschiff).  Until recently, Mauritius was the only home of the flightless pigeon-cousin, the dodo.

A pair of long beaked common dolphins Delphinus capensis porpoising in the waters two days out from Cape Town in South Africa Indian Ocean Photo Credit Zack Neher

Dolphins are not my specialty (and neither are sea turtles), but with the help of the Internet and the interpretive labels at the Iziko South African Museum, I have identified this dolphin as a long-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus capensis).  In the days leading up to our arrival in Cape Town, South Africa, the marine life became increasingly more abundant.  For the first time since we departed Mexico, we were able to see seals, and we also spotted several enormous pods of dolphins, a very high concentration of seabirds, and even two sharks!

Zack Neher at the Iziko South African Museum in Cape Town in front of the mounted skeletons of the spinosaur theropod Suchomimus and the juvenile sauropod dinosaur Jobaria

Here I am at the Iziko South African Museum in Cape Town.  They had a fantastic exhibit on paleontology, focusing a lot on the local Permian Karoo fauna.  They had some dinosaur fossils as well, including these mounted casts of the spinosaur Suchomimus attacking a juvenile Jobaria, a type of sauropod, long-necked dinosaur.

Zack Neher in Kruger National Park South Africa

I was also fortunate enough to be able to fly to Kruger National Park and take a safari, which was an experience that I had wanted to do since childhood.  Unfortunately, I got very ill the night before the full-day safari, but modern medicine saved the day, and I was able to lean against the back window thing and have some fun.

Baby African elephnat Loxodonta africana in the wilds of Kruger National Park South Africa Photo Credit Zack Neher

Here is a baby African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Kruger.  Unfortunately, elephant overpopulation has become a real issue in the park.

Zack Neher and Michael Collett on top of Table Mountain National Park in the Cape Floral Kingdom in Cape Town South Africa Photo Credit Zack Neher

My buddy Michael Collett and I on top of of Table Mountain in Cape Town.  Table Mountain National Park is home to the Cape Floral Region, one of six of the world’s floral kingdoms.

A trio of African Penguins Spheniscus demersus on the beach at Simon's Town in Cape Town South Africa with Michael Collett and Teddy Castro Photo Credit Zack Neher

I wasn’t about to leave South Africa without getting my first chance to see penguins in the wild, even if it meant getting back to the ship late (a possibility that, for a period of time, we thought might be reality).  We got lucky, and were able to see a number of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) relaxing on land in Simon’s Town.

A view of the tropical rainforest in the Kakum National Park in Ghana from the top of a treehouse with Michael Collett and Caleb LarnerdPhoto Credit Zack Neher

Our next stop was Ghana, where we spent our first night in a treehouse in Kakum National Park.  We got to do the canopy walk early in the morning, which was an amazing experience as well.

Caleb Larnerd Haley Collins and Zack Neher in the Shai Hills Resource Reserve in Ghana

My friends Cal Larnerd and Haley Collins and I visit the Shai Hills Resource Reserve in Ghana, where we had a guide who worked at the park drive around with us in the taxi (on the right is our taxi driver, Yaw).

Sand dunes in the Sahara Desert with Kim Kassander Michael Collett Meredith Leung Haley Collins Emily Kaplan Photo Credit Zack Neher

In Morocco, we spent a very long time on bus rides to get to the Sahara Desert.  It was pretty crazy to think that just a week and a half before, we had been in a rainforest.

The infamous Loch Ness near Inverness in Scotland United Kingdom Photo Credit Zack Neher

Before I went home to Colorado, I spent a few days in England, Ireland, and Scotland.  Here’s a picture of the famous Loch Ness.  Unfortunately, I saw no sign of the Loch Ness Monster.

 

This is just a few brief snapshots of what I’ve been up to the last few months.  I’ve got a big summer planned and there’s a lot to do, so stay tuned for some exciting content coming up soon!